Many Alpine ophiolite complexes characteristically display a pseudostratiform sequence of ultramafics, gabbro, diabase, pillow lava and deep-sea sediments. These masses resemble the known rock suite from the ocean floor. They are either fragments of old oceanic crust and mantle caught up in deformed belts, or results of diapiric emplacement of partly molten mantle material on or near the sea bottom. Such complexes are widespread in the Tethyan mountain system and have been recognized also from the circum-Pacific region. The Troodos Massif, Cyprus, consists of a pseudostratiform mass of harzburgite, dunite, pyroxenite, gabbro, quartz diorite, diabase and pillow lava arranged in a dome-like manner. The diabase forms a remarkable dyke swarm, trending mostly north-south in which 100 km of extension is indicated over 100 km of exposure. Such a feature suggests formation by sea-floor spreading. Layering of pyroxenite, harzburgite and dunite generally is perpendicular to subhorizontal rock unit contacts. The harzburgite and dunite are tectonites and probably represent uppermost mantle. Pyroxenite, gabbro, quartz diorite and diabase may represent the products of partial fusion of mantle material or of fractional crystallization of such partial fusion products. Chemical compositions of mafic intrusive and extrusive rocks do not fit well with oceanic tholeiite compositions, but resemble greenstones and associated rocks recently reported from the oceans. The massif probably formed about an old Tethyan ridge. Some pillow lavas may be crust added after the main spreading episode. A fault zone active during emplacement of the lower units of the complex may represent a fossil transform fault. Complex chilled margins in the dyke swarms and mutually contradictory cross-cutting relations between dykes and plutonic mafic rock suggest formation of ocean crust by multiple intrusion of small portions of liquid. Uneven top surface of the dyke swarm and some conjugate dyke systems suggest independently varying rates of magma supply and extension. Other Tethyan ophiolites, particularly in Greece and Italy, exhibit internal structure parallel to, rather than perpendicular to, major rock units, and some show much less diversity in mafic rock type. If these masses are fragments of ocean floor and mantle, such differences in internal structure may be due to differences in spreading processes-perhaps differences in spreading rate.