The current status of knowledge concerning the chemistry of carbon in the lunar regolith is discussed. The respective roles of the solar wind and micrometeorite impact in contributing carbon and providing energy to stimulate chemical reactions and mobilize carbon phases are examined. Most detailed information has been obtained by releasing trapped species and decomposing reactive carbon phases by dissolution of lunar soils in concentrated deuterium labelled acids. The method has substantiated that hydrocarbons deriving from solar wind implanted carbon and hydrogen are present in the silicate. In addition to trapped species, a number of carbon phases chemically bound to the matrix have been recognized. The most important of these are an acid hydrolysable species associated with metallic iron and what appears to be a discrete ionic carbide which liberates acetylene. Although the majority of the solar wind implanted carbon may be released and quantitated by pyrolysis there is little information to identify which elements were bonded to the carbon in the sample, if indeed any bonds were present at all.