The nature and graphical representation of preferred orientations, or textures, in polycrystalline assemblies is outlined. The genesis of textures during plastic deformation of metals is examined in terms of single crystal behaviour, with special reference to the formation of deformation bands, and the influence of pre-existing texture on subsequent plastic deformation (including creep) is exemplified. Next, the nature and origin of textures formed by annealing after plastic deformation are analysed and the relative roles of oriented nucleation and oriented growth assessed. A different kind of texture in stressed polycrystalline quartz is formed as a consequence of Dauphine twinning. This form of twinning is explained in some detail and the origin of the textures explained in terms of the driving force that brings about Dauphine twinning; these driving forces are compared with those that determine recrystallization in metals.