Lignocelluloses represent a major source of renewable organic matter. Development of biological processing strategies normally must consider some form of pretreatment, hydrolysis of the polymers and bioutilization or bioconversion of these molecules to useful products. Bioprocessing technologies will usually involve low-moisture solid-substrate fermentations. Landfill techniques are now widely practised and gas abstraction methods developed. Aerobic composting methods have gained increasing importance recently and set out to achieve brevity of process with low energy consumption, safe standard products for agricultural use and hygienic operation. `Open' and `closed' composting systems are compared and evaluated. Single-cell protein has been produced from many lignocellulosic wastes and used for ruminant animal feeding. Current practices use pure-culture or mixed-culture bioprocesses. Mushroom cultivation is the most economically successful method for bioprocessing lignocelluloses and many commercial systems operate throughout the world.