Active and recent faulting along the main north--south road in Tibet is dominated by normal faulting occurring on northerly-trending planes and by strike-slip faulting, both of which reflect an east--west extension of the plateau. Normal faulting is prevalent in the southern half of the plateau, but we saw no evidence for any major graben in the northern half. Strike-slip faulting on roughly easterly-trending structures is more prevalent in the northern half, but conjugate faulting, with right-lateral slip on northwesterly-trending planes and left-lateral slip on north-easterly-trending planes, is common in the southern half. In two areas, we also observed components of thrust faulting, apparently in association with young strike-slip faulting. Our most important results are bounds on the rates of slip on the two main strands of the Kunlun strike-slip fault system, which trends east--west through the Kunlun range. Ground moraine containing boulders of pyroxenite is separated by 30 km from the nearest outcrop of such rock, implying that amount of displacement in the last 1.5 to 3 Ma. Therefore the average rate of slip during the Quaternary period has been between 10 and 20 mm/a, with a likely value of 13 mm/a. Abundant fresh tension cracks and mole tracks imply continued slip on the main strand, the Xidatan--Tuosuohu--Maqu fault, and the likely occurrence of a major earthquake in the last few hundred years. Consistent offsets of gullies and dry stream channels of about 10 m may reflect slip of that amount during such an earthquake, and possible multiple offsets at one site suggest that slip may occur by large displacements of 10 m during infrequent great earthquakes. Along the other strand, the Kunlun Pass fault, offsets of roughly 50 to 150 m of, apparently, post-glacial valleys and of one glacier and its terminal moraine suggest a Holocene rate of slip between 5 and 20 mm/a, and most likely about 10 mm/a, on this fault. These rapid rates of displacement imply that Tibet is being extruded rapidly eastward, at a rate comparable to the rate at which India is penetrating into Eurasia, and therefore that, at present, a substantial fraction of this penetration is being absorbed by the eastward extrusion of Tibet.