Establishing the paleogeographic origin of most of the terranes within the Cordillera remains an ellusive goal; despite more than 10 years of multidisciplinary research, the home port of any major terrane has not been identified unequivocally. Even most continental fragments that show affinities to North America cannot be repositioned confidently along the Cordilleran margin, and some continental fragments (e.g. Chulita) probably are not North American in origin. Cordilleran oceanic terranes, including island arcs, seamounts, off-ridge islands, and scraps of ocean basins, are especially difficult to reposition because Panthalassa has been destroyed. Faunal studies with emphasis on palaeobiogeographic affinities are the most useful, particularly when coupled with analyses of faunal diversity and endemism. Such studies suggest that some terranes previously thought to have formed near the Cordillerran margin were situated thousands of kilometres to the west, and were separated from the continent by broad ocean basins, rather than by a narrow marginal sea.