## Abstract

In this paper we derive a theory, based on quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, that governs the effect of global-scale, steady-state convection and associated static asphericities in the elastic-gravitational variables (adiabatic bulk modulus $\kappa $, density $\rho $, and gravitational potential $\phi $) on helioseismic eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions and present a formalism with which this theory can be applied computationally. The theory rests on three formal assumptions: (1) that convection is temporally steady in a frame corotating with the Sun, (2) that accurate eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions can be determined by retaining terms in the seismically perturbed equations of motion only to first order in p-mode displacement, and (3) that we are justified in retaining terms only to first order in convective velocity (this is tantamount to assuming that the convective flow is anelastic). The most physically unrealistic assumption is (1), and we view the results of this paper as the first step toward a more general theory governing the seismic effects of time-varying fields. Although the theory does not govern the seismic effects of non-stationary flows, it can be used to approximate the effects of unsteady flows on the acoustic wavefield if the flow is varying smoothly in time. The theory does not attempt to model seismic modal amplitudes since these are governed, in part, by the exchange of energy between convection and acoustic motions which is not a part of this theory. However, we show how theoretical wavefields can be computed given a description of the stress field produced by a source process such as turbulent convection. The basic reference model that will be perturbed by rotation, convection, structural asphericities, and acoustic oscillations is a spherically symmetric, non-rotating, non-magnetic, isotropic, static solar model that, when subject to acoustic oscillations, oscillates adiabatically. We call this the SNRNMAIS model. An acoustic mode of the SNRNMAIS model is denoted by k = (n,l,m), where n is the radial order, l is the harmonic degree, and m is the azimuthal order of the mode. The main result of the paper is the general matrix element H$_{n^{\prime}n,l^{\prime}l}^{m^{\prime}m}$ for steady-state convection satisfying the anelastic condition with static structural asphericities. It is written in terms of the radial, scalar eigenfunctions of the SNRNMAIS model, resulting in equations (90)-(110). We prove Rayleigh's principle in our derivation of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory which, as a by-product, yields the general matrix element. Within this perturbative method, modes need not be exactly degenerate in the SNRNMAIS solar model to couple, only nearly so. General matrix elements compose the hermitian supermatrix Z. The eigenvalues of the supermatrix are the eigenfrequency perturbations of the convecting, aspherical model and the eigenvector components of Z are the expansion coefficients in the linear combination forming the eigenfunctions in which the eigenfunctions of the SNRNMAIS solar model act as basis functions. The properties of the Wigner 3j symbols and the reduced matrix elements composing H$_{n^{\prime}n,l^{\prime}l}^{m^{\prime}m}$ produce selection rules governing the coupling of SNRNMAIS modes that hold even for time-varying flows. We state selection rules for both quasi-degenerate and degenerate perturbation theories. For example, within degenerate perturbation theory, only odd-degree s toroidal flows and even degree structural asphericities, both with s $\leq $ 2l, will couple and/or split acoustic modes with harmonic degree l. In addition, the frequency perturbations caused by a toroidal flow display odd symmetry with respect to the degenerate frequency when ordered from the minimum to the maximum frequency perturbation. We consider the special case of differential rotation, the odd-degree, axisymmetric, toroidal component of general convection, and present the general matrix element and selection rules under quasi-degenerate perturbation theory. We argue that due to the spacing of modes that satisfy the selection rules, quasi-degenerate coupling can, for all practical purposes, be neglected in modelling the effect of low-degree differential rotation on helioseismic data. In effect, modes that can couple through low-degree differential rotation are too far separated in frequency to couple strongly. This is not the case for non-axisymmetric flows and asphericities where near degeneracies will regularly occur, and couplings can be relatively strong especially among SNRNMAIS modes within the same multiplet. All derivations are performed and all solutions are presented in a frame corotating with the mean solar angular rotation rate. Equation (18) shows how to transform the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions in the corotating frame into an inertial frame. The transformation has the effect that each eigenfunction in the inertial frame is itself time varying. That is, a mode of oscillation, which is defined to have a single frequency in the corotating frame, becomes multiply periodic in the inertial frame.

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