Materials in use at high temperatures can reach states which are close to equilibrium and knowledge of the stable phase structure at fabrication and working temperatures can therefore be very important. The field of high-temperature structural materials provided one of the areas where thermodynamic phase diagram calculations were first used some two to three decades ago. However, although some general features of phase equilibria were predicted reasonably well, the early attempts were not able to provide sufficient accuracy for more general, practical use. Recent work has now shown that it is possible to make very accurate predictions for phase equilibria in a number of high-temperature structural materials and it is possible to demonstrate that predictions for phase equilibria in `real' multicomponent alloys provide results close to those which are measured experimentally. This paper will present typical results which can now be obtained for $\gamma $-TiAl-based intermetallics and Ni-based superalloys and some specific examples of usage will be shown. A further advantage of the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) route is that other properties can be predicted using input data from the calculations, for example non-equilibrium solidification phenomena, time-temperature-transformation diagrams, antiphase domain boundary and stacking fault energies. This extension of the CALPHAD method will be briefly discussed.