Conjugated polymers possess attractive electronic and optical properties which also qualify them as active components of devices. Many conjugated polymers are made up of benzenoid building blocks. The functionalization of benzene rings is therefore a key step in polymer synthesis. Particularly important are functionalizations leading to direct aryl–aryl coupling and to the incorporation of vinylene and ethynylene units.
On the other hand the benzene ring serves as a modular building block for controlling the supramolecular structures of macromolecules. The formation of aggregates or of liquid crystalline phases are typical examples (Dietrich et al. 1993).
Herein, we present modular approaches towards the synthesis and supramolecular ordering of: (1) ladder–type poly(para–phenylene) (LPP); (2) donor–acceptor–substituted poly(para–phenylene–vinylene) (D/A-PPV); (3) poly(para–phenylenesulphide–para–phenyleneamine) (PPSA); (4) graphite sheets.