Royal Society Publishing

Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires


Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are collective electron oscillations coupled to a light field which are propagating along the interface of a metal and a dielectric. As a surface wave, SPP modes feature properties essentially different from light–field modes in all dielectric structures. These properties could allow the realization of novel photonic devices that overcome certain limitations of conventional devices. Specifically, the realization of two–dimensional optics and light–field transport in sub–wavelength SPP waveguides seems feasible. In this review we discuss recent experimental advances regarding SPP waveguides, i.e. laterally confined metal thin films that guide SPPs. Electron–beam lithography is applied to tailor these films with widths ranging from a few micrometres (stripes) to nanoscopic values (wires). We investigate SPP properties such as propagation length, mode field profile and reflection or scattering at interfaces. Various techniques for SPP excitation and detection are discussed.