Raman spectroscopy of fullerenes and fullerene–nanotube composites

Hans Kuzmany, Rudolf Pfeiffer, Martin Hulman, Christian Kramberger

Abstract

The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a completely new field of materials research. Together with the single–wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) discovered later, these curved carbon networks are a playground for pure as well as applied science. We present a review of Raman spectroscopy of fullerenes, SWCNTs and composite materials. Beginning with pristine C60, we discuss intercalated C60 compounds and polymerized C60, as well as higher and endohedral fullerenes. Concerning SWCNTs, we show how the diameter distribution can be obtained from the Raman spectra and how doping modifies the spectra. Finally, the Raman response of C60 encapsulated into SWCNTs (C60 peapods) is discussed.