Table 3

Results for 2×CO2 and climate engineering simulations relative to control simulations. (All simulations have 560 ppm CO2 and are compared against simulations with 280 ppm CO2.)

southernmost latitude with insolation reduction71° N61° N90° S61° N90° S71° N
insolation reduction in engineered region (%)025101.84250.7350
global mean insolation reduction (%)00.370.371.841.840.730.73
results averaged over Arctic
temperature change (K)3.46−0.280.680.83−11.182.39−3.18
change in sea ice fraction (%)−−1.329.0−5.212.5
change in snow depth (%)−15.354.217.3−5.8366.4−12.1149.7
change in precipitation (%)15.514.910.70.8−10.79.912.7
change in evaporation (%)13.1−12.4−8.53.0−61.210.6−28.7
change in atm water vapour transport to Arctic (%)−0.827.09.443.6
change in atm heat transport to Arctic (PW)
percentage of change in surface albedo-
percentage of change in TOA albedo−−0.611.7−1.22.9
change in September sea ice fraction (%)−44.329.27.0−4.3135.9−25.676.8
results averaged over entire planet
temperature change (K)2.131.831.750.110.151.341.49
change in ice fraction (%)−29.76−23.62−24.14−4.320.85−20.47−18.36
change in precipitation (%)4.343.823.50−1.130.922.123.35
change in absorbed shortwave radiation (PW)0.330.080.00−1.81−1.29−0.51−0.20