Table 1.

Notation.

Ddiameter of helical pile shaft
Dpdiameter of helical plate(s) on helical pile
Hhorizontal load
Llength of helical pile (ground surface to top of tip detail once the pile is fully installed)
nnumber of helical plates
ppitch of the helical plates
svertical spacing of helical plates (centre-to-centre)
suundrained strength of fine-grained soil
Tinstallation torque
Vdownward vertical (compression) load on pile
Vtupward vertical (tension) load on pile
Wpilepile weight
γsoil bulk unit weight
γsoil effective unit weight =γ − γw
γwwater unit weight